miércoles, marzo 05, 2008

ETIMOLOGIA - LÉXICO : DISCIPLINA

ETIMOLOGIA - LÉXICO

DISCIPLINA

Es muy interesante la expansión semántica de disciplina. Partiendo de discere, que significa aprender (recuérdese el doblete docente - discente; el primero es el que enseña, el segundo el que aprende), se formaron discípulo, disciplina (la disciplina y las disciplinas), disciplinado, indisciplinado, díscolo, disciplinario. Es decir que ideando fórmulas para que el alumno aprendiese, que de eso se trataba al fin y al cabo, se fue desarrollando y ampliando el concepto de disciplina.

En la actualidad el significado más usual de disciplina es el de "conjunto de reglas para mantener el orden y la subordinación entre los miembros de un cuerpo". Y aquí nos quedamos. Para más ampliación recomiendo los diccionarios; es muy interesante echarle un vistazo a todo el campo léxico. Llamo tan sólo la atención sobre el adjetivo disciplinario, que finalmente es el sistema de correctivos para devolver a los díscolos al camino de la disciplina.

Venimos del latín disco, discere, didici (reduplicado). Y no tiene supino (tendría que haber sido didictum); no lo tiene porque no le hace falta. El uso transitivo del verbo quedó arrinconado, para potenciarse cada vez más los usos intransitivo e instrumental (discere armis = entrenarse en las armas). Sospecho que la raíz es sc-, la misma de scio, scire, saber, de donde deriva scientia = ciencia (dejo para otro momento las exploraciones en este campo). Lo que está claro es que significa aprender y que su derivado disciplina (su forma arcaica era discipulina) es el esfuerzo que hace el discípulus por aprender.


De ahí pasó a denominar por una parte el conjunto de condiciones ambientales externas para que la actividad de aprender se pudiera desarrollar, y por otra las actuaciones concretas para forzar el aprendizaje. En ambos casos estamos hablando de presión externa o de esfuerzo propio.

Es oportuno recordar que el verbo studere, del que proceden estudiar y estudiante están exactamente en la misma línea de esfuerzo (ver web). Quizá la diferencia más notable entre ambos es que siendo en origen el sujeto tanto del estudio como de la disciplina el propio estudiante, la disciplina ha acabado siendo algo que le viene impuesto desde fuera.

El problema es que se han aflojado muchísimo las dos fuentes de presión para forzar el aprendizaje. El estudio es la obstinación del sujeto por conseguir algo (no es precisamente este el retrato robot del "estudiante"); y la disciplina son las condiciones externas y la presión ambiental para que el estudiante efectivamente estudie.

Desde el momento en que la escuela ha sustituido la disciplina (es decir el cultivo de las condiciones más idóneas para que los discípulos aprendan) por un sistema disciplinario cuyo objetivo no son ya las condiciones de aprendizaje, sino pura y simplemente las de convivencia (y a veces de supervivencia) en la escuela, es que hemos desnaturalizado seriamente las cosas.
El haber substituido (de esto hace ya dos reformas) el aprendizaje por la escolarización, es decir el hacer por el estar, ha cambiado profundamente las cosas. Esto no se ha producido por inercia. Es el resultado de una filosofía y una programación. ¿A beneficio de quién?


Mariano Arnal

LÉXICO

Publicado en la edición El Almanaque Nº 3079 Miércoles 5 de Marzo de 2008

47 comentarios:

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Solo queria ponerme en contacto con la edicion de esta web, pero no he encontrado la manera de contactar con la redaccion. Es con respecto al autor D.Mariano Arnal, ya que en la redaccion de la Semana Santa de Málaga hace referencia a costaleros, cuando se refiere a os Hombres de Trono(con mayúsculas y en nombre propio). Pues en Málaga los Tronos(a los que se refiere el artículo como pasos)se llevan con el hombro.

Por ultimo, y sin desmerecer a ninguna cofradía, hay algunas cofradias que tienen mucho mas "tirón", es decir son mas impactantes. Cofradías tales como La Expiración(Miércoles Santo), Rocío(La "Novia de Málaga"),El Cautivo, La Esperanza, Mena, "El Chiquito",y por ejemplo El Santo Sepulcro.

Con este comentario no quiero ofender ni mucho menos, sino que ofrezco mi ayuda y mi humilde formación en este campo, para que el articulo sea lo más representativo posible.

Muchas Gracias por su atención, y disculpen las molestias por lo inadecuado del lugar de ubicación.

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